His paternal grandfather, Marcus Annius Verus, was a Roman senator, whereas his maternal grandmother, Domitia Lucilla Maior, was an extremely wealthy woman who owned one of the largest brick factories in the Roman Empire. As a result the Jews often tried to distract Roman attention by foregrounding the Christian threat and investigating persecutions against them. (11), From my brother Severus, to love my kin, and to love truth, and to love justice… I learned from him also consistency and undeviating steadiness in my regard for philosophy; and a disposition to do good, and to give to others readily, and to cherish good hopes, and to believe that I am loved by my friends; and in him I observed no concealment of his opinions with respect to those whom he condemned, and that his friends had no need to conjecture what he wished or did not wish, but it was quite plain. (40) Fronto later wrote: "I confess and make no secret of it, that I am your rival in his love - everything else is remediable and of infinitely less importance than this." (10), From Fronto I learned to observe what envy, and duplicity, and hypocrisy are in a tyrant, and that generally those among us who are called Patricians are rather deficient in paternal affection. (2), From my mother, piety and beneficence, and abstinence, not only from evil deeds, but even from evil thoughts; and further, simplicity in my way of living, far removed from the habits of the rich. (60), It has been argued by Henry Chadwick that in this book, Celsus attempted to justify the traditional polytheistic Roman state religion. (6), Waste no more time arguing what a good man should be. (119), From my grandfather Verus I learned good morals and the government of my temper. Cassius sent details of his campaign to Rome, for which he was rewarded with elevation to the Senate. His good health and good looks were remarkable, but he was never vain or hypochondriacal." I find that amusing since it Marcus Aurelius, the wise, the all-knowing Marcus Aurelius, that closed us down. This included the claim that Marcus had Verus poisoned: "That hardy perennial of ancient conspiracy theories - the knife used to cut up meat that was poisoned on one side only - duly made its appearance, though some said Marcus had employed a physician named Posiddipus to overbleed his fellow emperor, since bloodletting was then considered a panacea. His secrets were not but very few and very rare, and these only about public matters; and he showed prudence and economy in the exhibition of the public spectacles and the construction of public buildings, his donations to the people, and in such things, for he was a man who looked to what ought to be done, not to the reputation which is got by a man's acts. He also paid money to members of bandit groups to abandon their life of crime in order to serve in the Roman Army. (59), Celsus was born in about 120 AD. "They cannot have it both ways: either they are a new sect with no relation to Judaism, or they are a cousin of the Jewish faith, in which case they are not entitled to take a pick-and-mix approach to its doctrines. Source: Wikipedia Lucius Aurelius Commodus Source. (49), Lucius Verus spent very little time at the front and it was Avidius Cassius who led the Roman Army down the Euphrates, and defeated the Parthians at Dura-Europos. So, finally after five years of scratching a living in flea-infested villages, we're finally going back to where we belong. Many possible causes have been suggested: pulmonary tuberculosis, a gastric ulster or some form of blood disease. The two fight Spartacus fiercely, when Glaber falls on the ground, Marcus jumps in and attacks Spartacus with every move he got in order to let Glaber recover. The tribune doesn't listen and attempts to shout to the other Romans "Spartacus is here, bear arms !". I guess that Spartacus was more a romantic symbol (a rebellion leader) than Gaius Julius Caesar IV (a military leader and conqueror) so he comes before. Rulers who commit atrocities, even those they consider justifiable for reasons of state, rarely leave written evidence of their deeds for posterity to find." Now is the time. (31), This is a fine saying of Plato: That he who is discoursing about men should look also at earthly things as if he viewed them from some higher place; should look at them... a mixture of all things and an orderly combination of contraries. He also insisted that Christians are not willing to compromise their pacifist beliefs: "The devil is the author of all war... We, who used to kill one another, do not make war on our enemies. The first recorded example of this concerns three Christians, Carpus, Papylus, and Agathonice, who were traveling through Pergamum. Facebook gives people the power to … (16), Only to the rational animal is it given to follow voluntarily what happens; but simply to follow is a necessity imposed on all. The purpose of martyrdom was the belief that this public act of witness, was intended to give heart to the less intrepid Christian brethren and to make a demonstration of faith before unbelievers. The main charges against them were cannibalism and incest. Be one. As for redemption, what about all the innumerable people who lived before he was incarnated? (5), He who has a vehement desire for posthumous fame does not consider that every one of those who remember him will himself also die very soon; then again also they who have succeeded them, until the whole remembrance shall have been extinguished as it is transmitted through men who foolishly admire and perish. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (often referred to as "the wise") was Emperor of the Roman Empire from 161 to his death in 180. Love mankind. (95), The German tribes eventually retreated but the damage done to Roman prestige was immense. Life is brief; there is but one harvest of earthly existence, a holy disposition and neighbourly acts." The Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius was perhaps the only true philosopher- king in the history of the world. Glad that this list includes Augustus but… why is Marcus Aurelius not included? (42), He who fears death either fears to lose all sensation or fears new sensations. Keep yourself therefore, simple, good, pure, grave, unaffected, the friend of justice, religious, kind, affectionate, strong for your proper work. (22) Antoninus also had to adopt the seven-year-old son of Aelius Verus. The rest were taken into the local stadium where they were torn apart by wild animals. Marcus Aurelius: There was once a dream that was Rome. While he is able to hold his own against an average gladiator, he pales in comparison to a high-tier fighter such as Spartacus, whom is easily able to best him on two occasions. Whatever the case, he emerges as the kind of arbitrary and capricious deity that only morans could believe in." Marco Aurélio (in Latin Marcus Aurelius; April 26, 121 - March 17, 180), was Roman emperor from 161 until his death. Is helping others less valuable to you? (29), According to Marcus Aurelius: "He honoured those who were true philosophers, and he did not reproach those who pretended to be philosophers, nor yet was he easily led by them. The sheer critical and commercial success of Glaidator was able to single-handedly revive historical epics. The empire was made up of modern Iran, as well as significant chunks of present-day Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, Saudia Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar and the UAE. The mortality rate is between 90% and 100%. However, in early 162 AD Marcus decided that either he or Lucius Verus would have to go East to command in person. We refuse to tell lies or deceive our inquisitors; we prefer to die acknowledging Christ." However, Marcus's personal belief-set was not purely Stoic: it was heavily biased by, and overlaid with, strong humanistic beliefs. (33), Another influential tutor was Claudius Severus Arabianus, a follower of Aristotle, who instructed Marcus in the philosophical tradition of resistance to tyranny. He also stated that Christians had to be prepared to die for their beliefs. Marcus comments on Fronto only took up a couple of lines in The Meditations: "From Fronto I learned to observe what envy, and duplicity, and hypocrisy are in a tyrant, and that generally those among us who are called Patricians are rather deficient in paternal affection." Marcus feared that Christians were winning the ideological battle against their pagan rivals and that it might pose a serious threat to both Stoicism and the official Roman religion. Born in the Purple 49m. In 161 AD Vologases IV launched a serious and unprovoked attack on Armenia, part of the Roman Empire. (51), Marcus Aurelius did not believe in the efficient working of "free markets". Marcus also persuaded his wife, Faustina, to sell some of gold-embroided robes and her jewels. His reign produced a deluge of legislation on the water supply, the architecture of public baths and burial places. Why what can take place without change? His two decades as emperor were marked by near continual warfare. These lesions become pustules, which feel like small beads in the skin. Marcus is young, but wise, often providing counsel and tactical advice to Glaber. (100), In January 169 Marcus and Lucius decided to return to Rome. "Marcus did not meet with the good fortune that he deserved, for he was not strong in body and was involved in a multitude of troubles throughout practically his entire reign. ... roman empire, ancient rome, legion, legionary, legionaire, centurion, spqr, total war, maximus, spartacus, marcus aurelius, caesar, julius caesar, mythology, greek, zodiac. The coliseum. In a scene that arguably solidified Russell Crowe’s status as a leading man in Hollywood, the general-turned-gladiator removes his helmet and declares, "My name is Maximus Decimus Meridius, commander of the Armies of the North, General of the Felix Legions, loyal servant to the true emperor, Marcus Aurelius.Father to a murdered son, husband to a murdered wife. Marcus Aurelius appointed Marcus Statius Priscus to deal with the Parthians. (26), The intelligence of the universe is social. The Romans suffered heavy casualties and soon most of Palestine was in Bar-Kochba's hands. Marcus Aurelius. (23), Hadrian died on 10th July 138. But I know that for those who live the good life there awaits the divine gift even to the consummation." (69), To change your mind and to follow him who sets you right is to be nonetheless the free agent that you were before. Spartacus. A trained Roman soldier and a capable leader in his own right, Marcus has combat experience. He was the last of the "Five Good Emperors", and is also considered one of the more important Stoic philosophers. The couple had 13 children in their marriage of three decades. Marcus Aurelius married Faustina the Younger, a relative, in 145. This savior, I shall attempt to show, deceived many and caused them to accept a form of belief harmful to the well-being of mankind. As Frank McLynn points out: "In the first place it was thought that schools were likely to corrupt the morals of the young, partly because they would come into contact with rougher, more depraved elements, and partly because there was little effective discipline in the public schools, with teachers either being martinets or pussycats, but seldom striking the right balance, and their charges being idle, ill-behaved, conceited or self-willed." (45), Marcus was forty when he became emperor. He was portrayed by the late Richard Harris in the 2000 film Gladiator. The unified rebels headed for Mount Vesuvius, some 20 miles away. The Christians were tortured and beaten and their leader, Pothinus, a 90-year old bishop, died from his injuries. As Frank McLynn has pointed out: "Undoubtedly one of the deep causes of the persecution of the Christians in Marcus's reign, and certainly not discouraged by the emperor, was the perception that they had caused the plague, either by the black magic of their Christian god or by angering the Olympians with their blasphemy." From Hadrian's point of view, Antoninus was a perfect blank state: he was a steady character, had no real enemies or ongoing feuds, had no siblings and just one daughter surviving from five children; his two sons had both died young." If, to modern ears, this sounds too interventionist, it must be conceded that in the early years of his reign Marcus enjoyed almost unparalleled popularity." "Since we do not place our hopes on the present order, we are not troubled by being put to death, since we will have to die somehow in any case". The action demonstrates Marcus's clear intention to commence his reign as he meant to go on: by acting in accordance with what he held to be right and fair, even when this was in no way demanded or expected of him." However, in early 162 AD Marcus decided that either he or Lucius Verus would have to go East to command in person. (15), In my father (Emperor Antoninus Pius) I observed mildness of temper, and unchangeable resolution in the things which he had determined after due deliberation; and no vainglory in those things which men call honours; and a love of labour and perseverance; and a readiness to listen to those who had anything to propose for the commonweal; and undeviating firmness in giving to every man according to his deserts; and a knowledge derived from experience of the occasions for vigorous action and for remission. Finally, he used his own funds to distribute free oil, grain and wine in periods of famine. Some people have claimed that it was an outbreak measles but although it was responsible for a large number of deaths in the ancient world, this outbreak is generally considered to be smallpox. Would not an old women who sings a song to lull a little child have been ashamed to whisper such tales as these." (75), Celsus was especially critical of the doctrine of Incarnation. His grandfather and great-grandfather on his fathers side were senators and his mother, Domitia Lucilla (known as the minor, c. 155-161 CE), also came from a wealthy and politically connected family. He also abolished the much hated Italian circuit-judges instituted by Hadrian. A man's worth is no greater than his ambitions. He was hypersensitive to cold and probably accentuated his debility by taking little food. (1), Some people, when they do someone a favor, are always looking for a chance to call it in. In twenty-three years he doled out largesse worth 800 denarii a head, an average of thirty-five denarii a year. While in the city news was received of an interim truce signed with the Germans on the Danube. (94), The Marcomanni, based in Bohemia, emerged as the principal power in Germany. What then does not harm law does not harm either state or citizen. For nowhere either with more quiet or more freedom from trouble does a man retire than into his own soul. He was most ready to give way without envy to those who possessed any particular faculty, such as that of eloquence or knowledge of the law or of morals, or of anything else; and he gave them his help, that each might enjoy reputation according to his deserts; and he always acted conformably to the institutions of his country, without showing any affectation of doing so…. Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. Crescens commented that if God was on the side of the Christians, he would rescue them. Who crucified 6,000 slaves to warn people against future revolts? Reverence the gods, save men. (84) Other historians like Herbert Brook Workman (85) and Elizabeth Livingstone (86) have agreed with Eusebius. Justin replied: "I hope for it if I am steadfast in my witness. However, no one doubts that Adolf Hitler ordered the Final Solution and the Holocaust, but on one has ever been able to find a document in his hand so ordering it. (80), In 177 AD people living in Lyon began to demonstrate against the small Christian community (most of them were Greek immigrants). Marcus became Emperor himself in AD 161, initially alongside Lucius Verus, becoming sole Emperor in AD 169. (107) "For me the present is constantly the matter on which rational and social virtue exercises itself." While Marcus and Spartacus square off. But others don't even do that. Luke Pegler, has appeared in the movie " The Condemned" along with Manu Bennett. (4), Yes, you can--if you do everything as if it were the last thing you were doing in your life, and stop being aimless, stop letting your emotions override what your mind tells you, stop being hypocritical, self-centered, irritable. Marcus was succeeded by his son Commodus, whom he had named Caesar in 166 and with whom he had jointly ruled since 177. Other people can do similar tricks, "so what exactly entitles Jesus thereafter is a mishmash of different traditions." There were also other Romans who believed that he had committed suicide because Hadrian had rejected him and had taken a younger lover. In 87 BCE, on the losing side against the forces of Gaius Marius and Cornelius Cinna, he committed suicide and the young Crassus fled to Spain. He therefore adopted Hadrian in order that he would succeed him when he died. (47), The Parthians then invaded Syria and the Roman governor was forced to flee. Maybe God is not omnipotent, omniscient or benevolent, or maybe he possesses at most two out of the three attributes? ', 'Dwell on the beauty of life. He was an insomniac who hated getting out of bed in the morning. (99), Aged 47 and already an old man by Roman standards, Marcus for the first time in his life traveled beyond southern Italy. Spartacus. The emperor was told that they needed 7,500 new recruits a year were needed for the legions. The rebellion of enslaved people happened at a moment when Rome's legions were abroad. (108) "Past and future have no power over you. Or is this what I was created for? To act against one another then is contrary to nature; and it is acting against one another to be vexed and to turn away." He led a Twelve Year Campaign in Germania, and his legions there were commanded by the Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius.He was murdered by his son, Commodus, because Marcus had instead appointed Maximus to be his successor. (96), Marcus Aurelius called on the help of the Roman gods. Producer Steven S DeKnight noted in the DVD commentary for. Marcus shrugs off his warnings, boasting that Spartacus will fall before the legions of Glaber, and - after several more skirmishes - his men are soon responsible for the deaths of more fleeing rebels: Tychos Sophus and Fortis, though not without suffering several casualties. (97), Marcus Aurelius also began raising money to pay for new troops. By marrying her, Pompeianus was brought into Marcus’ dynasty. Spartacus was a gladiator who was originally from Thrace. Antoninus Pius was given the title Pater Patriae (Father of his Country). Justin Martyr decided that Christianity needed to go on the offensive. Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. (55), Justin also reasserted the idea that Christianity was superior to other religions. Death is caused by massive haemorrhage in all the vital organs. 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