The Byzantine success had another corollary: deliverance from constant Arab pressure on the eastern frontier allowed the Byzantine government to concentrate on affairs in Europe, particularly in neighboring Bulgaria. The Paulicians were a Christian sect which—persecuted by the Byzantine state—had established a separate principality at Tephrike on Byzantium's eastern border and collaborated with the Muslim emirates of the Thughur, the Abbasid Caliphate's borderlands, against the Empire. He retook control of the Imperial forces and, striking from Byss, retook the New Republic capital world Coruscant. Byzantine historians report that Umar, enraged that the sea blocked his advance, ordered it to be lashed; modern scholars consider this account most likely inspired by a similar story about Xerxes during the Persian Wars. The campaign marked the culmination of twenty years of attacks and progressive Arab occupation of the Byzantine borderlands, while Byzantine strength was sapped by prolonged internal turmoil. At this time Yazeed was still south of the River Yarmuk; Amr bin Al Aas was still at the Valley of Araba; and several detachments of the corps of Abu Ubaidah and Shurahbil were spread over the District of Hauran. The subsequent battle ended in a complete Byzantine victory and the death of the Emir on the field, and was followed by a successful Byzantine counteroffensive across the border. [33] [34] Strong influences can also be found in episodes of the Arab, and later Turkish, epics about Battal Ghazi and in an episode in One Thousand and One Nights . Theophilos was the Byzantine Emperor from 829 until his death in 842. Battle of Lalakaon. The potential expansion of Rome's ecclesiastic influence to Constantinople's doorstep could not be tolerated by the Byzantine government. Umar al-Aqta was able to overcome the initial Byzantine resistance against his invasion and reach the shores of the Black Sea. In late summer 804, the Abbasids had invaded Byzantine Asia Minor for one of their customary raids, and Nikephoros set out to meet them. [30], The removal of the eastern threat and increasing Byzantine confidence also opened up opportunities in the west, where the Bulgarian ruler Boris (r. 852–889) had been negotiating with the Pope and Louis the German (r. 817–876) for the conversion of himself and his people to Christianity. The Battle of Lalakaon was the beginning of an era of Byzantine dominance in the East which resulted in a number of significant wins during the 10 th century as the empire underwent a revival. [14][22] The exact location of the river and the battle site have not been identified, but most scholars agree that they lay near the river Halys, some 130 kilometres (81 mi) southeast of Amisos. Battle of Lalakaon Top # 5 Facts. [13][15] The battle was bloody with many casualties on both sides; according to the Persian historian al-Tabari, only a thousand of Umar's army survived. [16] [20] [21], Despite the difficulty of coordinating these widely separated forces, the Byzantine armies met on September 2 and surrounded Umar's smaller army at a location known as Poson (Πόσων) or Porson (Πόρσων) near the Lalakaon River. [35]. [13][14], On the Byzantine side, Emperor Michael III had assembled his army to counter the Arab raid, and met them at a battle in an area called Marj al-Usquf ("Bishop's Meadow") by Arab sources, a highland near Malakopeia, north of Nazianzus. The Battle of Lalakaon (Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος), or Poson or Porson (Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος), was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). [16][24][25] The rout was complete, as the larger part of the Arab army and Umar himself fell on the field. Theophilos personally led the armies in his long war against the Arabs, beginning in 831. It was established in the early 8th century, once the first wave of the Muslim conquests ebbed, and lasted until the mid-10th century, when it was overrun by the Byzantine advance. On the Byzantine side, the Muslim marches were mirrored by the institution of the kleisourai districts and the akritai border guards. Abū Ḥafṣ ibn ʿAmr was the last Arab emir of Malatya (Melitene) before its reconquest by the Byzantine Empire in 934. After the Muslim conquest of the city of Bosra, their commander Shurahbil's spy came from Ajnadayn with news that soon a strong Imperial army would gather there. [13] [18] [19] Byzantine armies, assembled from throughout the empire, converged on the Arabs from three directions: a northern army, made up of forces from the Black Sea themes of the Armeniacs, Bucellarians, Koloneia, and Paphlagonia; a southern force (probably the one which fought at Bishop's Meadow and had since shadowed the Arab army), from the Anatolic, Opsician, and Cappadocian themes and the kleisourai (frontier districts) of Seleukeia and Charsianon; and a western force under Petronas, with men from the Macedonian, Thracian, and Thracesian themes and the imperial tagmata from the capital. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος), or Poson or Porson (Greek : Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος), [1] was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). The Battle of Anzen or Dazimon was fought on 22 July 838 at Anzen or Dazimon between the Byzantine Empire and the forces of the Abbasid Caliphate. [1] [29] [31], According to the French Byzantinist Henri Grégoire, the Byzantine successes against the Arabs, which culminated in the Battle of Lalakaon, inspired one of the oldest surviving acritic (heroic) poems: the Song of Armouris . Paulicianism: Battle of Lalakaon, Battle of Bathys Ryax, Divri I, Petrus Siculus: Books, LLC, Books, LLC: Amazon.nl [16] [24] [25] The rout was complete, with most of the Arab army (and Umar) falling in battle. During this period he participated alongside Umar in several raids against the Byzantine Empire. He was given the disparaging epithet the Drunkard by the hostile historians of the succeeding Macedonian dynasty, but modern historical research has rehabilitated his reputation to some extent, demonstrating the vital role his reign played in the resurgence of Byzantine power in the 9th century. [13] [14], Emperor Michael III assembled his army to counter the Arab raid, and met them in battle at an area known in Arab sources as Marj al-Usquf ("Bishop's Meadow"): a highland near Malakopeia, north of Nazianzus. The Battle of Marash was fought in 953 near Marash between the forces of the Byzantine Empire under the Domestic of the Schools Bardas Phokas the Elder, and of the Hamdanid Emir of Aleppo, Sayf al-Dawla, the Byzantines' most intrepid enemy during the mid-10th century. Khalid ibn al-Walid, commander of Muslim army, wrote to all commanders to march at once and concentrate at Ajnadayn. Nikephoros' accession in 802 resulted in a resumption of warfare between Byzantium and the Abbasid Caliphate. After sacking the city, they turned south to Amorium, where they arrived on 1 August. Mu'tasim targeted Amorium, a Byzantine city in western Asia Minor, because it was the birthplace of the ruling Byzantine dynasty and, at the time, one of Byzantium's largest and most important cities. He played a leading role in the campaigns of Caliph al-Mu'tasim, and was responsible for the suppression of the rebellion of Babak Khorramdin and for his battlefield victory over the Byzantine emperor Theophilos during the Amorium campaign. The success of the Battle of Lalakaon and its follow-up operations enabled the Empire to focus its might against Bulgaria, leading to its successful Christianization. Bardas Phokas himself barely escaped through the intervention of his attendants, and suffered a serious wound on his face, while his youngest son and governor of Seleucia, Constantine Phokas, was captured and held a prisoner in Aleppo until his death of an illness some time later. Pursued by Machairas, the kleisourarchēs of Charsianon, he was defeated and captured along with many of his men. The Byzantines though stood firm, giving the other two Byzantine wings time to close in and attack the Arab army's exposed rear and flanks. [13] [15] The battle was bloody, with heavy casualties on both sides; according to the Persian historian al-Tabari, only a thousand of Umar's army survived. The Byzantine victory at Lalakaon altered the strategic balance in the region and marked the beginning of Byzantium's century-long offensive in the East. After a failed Byzantine attempt to recover the Emirate of Crete in the previous year, the Abbasids launched a raid into Asia Minor. Three separate armies were formed and converged on the Arabs: a northern Byzantine force composed of the forces from the Black Sea themes of the Armeniacs, Bucellarians, Koloneia and Paphlagonia; a southern force, probably the one that had already fought at the Bishop's Meadow and had kept shadowing the Arab army, composed from the Anatolic, Opsician and Cappadocian themes, as well as the kleisourai (frontier districts) of Seleukeia and Charsianon; and the western force, under Petronas himself, comprising the men of the Macedonian, Thracian and Thracesian themes and of the imperial tagmata from the capital. [5], During the 850s the most significant threats to the Byzantine Empire were the emirate of Melitene (Malatya), under Umar al-Aqta; the emirate of Tarsus, under Ali ibn Yahya ("Ali the Armenian"); the emirate of Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis, modern Erzurum), and the Paulicians of Tephrike, led by Karbeas. Given the bias against Michael by the historians writing during the Macedonian dynasty, this may be a deliberate omission. There was little in the first year of the war to suggest that submarines were a major issue. The Byzantine success had another corollary: deliverance from constant Arab pressure on the eastern frontier allowed the Byzantine government to concentrate on affairs in Europe, and, in particular, neighboring Bulgaria. These expeditions, launched from bases in the Arab frontier zone almost annually, eventually acquired a quasi-ritualistic character as part of the Muslim jihad (holy war). Casualties may have included the Paulician leader Karbeas; although his participation in the battle is uncertain, it is recorded that he died that year. Following the rapid Muslim conquests of the 7th century, the Byzantine Empire found itself confined to Asia Minor, the southern coasts of the Balkans, and parts of Italy. Kiapidou, Eirini-Sofia (17 January 2003). The Bulgarians were pressured into accepting Byzantine Christianity, beginning their absorption into the Byzantine cultural sphere. A eunuch, he assisted in the ascent of Michael II to the throne in 822, and was rewarded with the titles of patrikios and later magistros. A truce and prisoner exchange were afterwards arranged. When Michael III came of age in 855, his uncle Bardas persuaded him to throw off the tutelage of Theoktistos and his mother, the Empress Theodora, and on 20 November 855, Theoktistos was assassinated by Bardas and his followers. [16][20][21], The coordination of all these forces was not easy, but the Byzantine armies, marching from three directions, were able to converge on the same day (September 2) and surround Umar's smaller army at a location called Poson (Πόσων) or Porson (Πόρσων) near the Lalakaon River. [32] A battle in the Byzantine epic cycle around Digenis Akritas is also reminiscent of the events at Lalakaon, as the eponymous hero surrounds an Arab army near Malakopeia. As Byzantium remained the caliphate's major infidel enemy, Arab raids into Asia Minor continued throughout the 8th and 9th centuries. Battle of Lalakaon Top # 5 Facts. In 863, he scored a crushing victory at the Battle of Lalakaon, a feat which marked the gradual beginning of a Byzantine counter-offensive in the East. The Battle of Lalakaon (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Λαλακάοντος) or Battle of Po(r)son (Greek: Μάχη τοῦ Πό(ρ)σωνος) was fought in 863 between the Byzantine Empire and an invading Arab army in Paphlagonia (modern northern Turkey). [15] [16] [17], When Michael learned of the fall of Amisos, he ordered a huge force to be assembled—al-Tabari claims 50,000 men—under his uncle Petronas (the domestikos tōn scholōn ) and Nasar, the stratēgos of the Bucellarian Theme. 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