Aral Sea. Some fish, such as herring and Atka mackerel, spawn in kelp beds. Kelp forests of the eastern Pacific coast are dominated by two canopy-forming, brown macroalgae species, giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera and bull kelp Nereocystis leutkeana. In the 1980's alone, kelp harvesting supported an industry worth more than $40 million a year, and in 1993, more than 4,700 wet tons of kelp were extracted from the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Photo by Randall Davis. A Well not really. Murray-Darling basin wetlands. Laura K. Blamey, George M. Branch, Regime shift of a kelp-forest benthic community induced by an ‘invasion’ of the rock lobster Jasus lalandii, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 10.1016/j.jembe.2012.03.022, 420-421, (33-47), (2012). Mountain 'fynbos' on Cape Town. Use this unique formula on houseplants throughout the year and in hydroponic gardening systems. From sea urchins and fish, to sea otters and whales. Today’s habitat designation includes all nearshore waters in the current range of the southwest Alaska population of the sea otter within 100 meters of mean high tide, waters less than two meters in depth, and kelp forests in waters less than 20 meters deep. The transition began when the population of sea otters started to decline, possibly because of increased predation by killer whales. All of them rely on the kelp forests for a place to live, a steady food source and protection from predators. Describe the three main layers of a forest. Key points: Scientists are concerned kelp loss is "out of sight, out of mind" In the eastern Pacific ocean, they occur from Alaska and Canada to the waters of Baja California in the northern hemisphere, and along the southern coast of Chile in the southern hemisphere. There is also evidence of worldwide declines and distribution shifts. There, it either remains to support productive and species rich detritus-based forest food webs, or is exported by currents to adjacent ecosystems where it fuels food webs on sandy beaches, deep rocky reefs or submarine canyons. History: The Giant Kelp forest is magnificent forest located in Alaska and along the west coast of North America. 8.) In the eastern Pacific ocean, they occur from Alaska and Canada to the waters of Baja California in the northern hemisphere, and along the southern coast of Chile in the southern hemisphere. 3029 Cordley Hall, Oregon State University, Corvallis Oregon 97331, PISCO-contact@lists.oregonstate.edu  www.piscoweb.org. 2714, a bill that threatens to reauthorize the sea otter fur ... never realized how important kelp was huh?) They provide food and shelter to thousands of animals and consist of kelp that grows 18 inches per day. For example, when conditions are ideal, the giant kelp’s average growth in spring can range from 27 to 61 centimeters (10 to 24 inches) per day. Acacia forests in the Senegal River basin. other ways that kelp forests could be damaged, such as by human activity, but the presence of sea otters seems to be a constant in areas with healthy kelp forests and other algae deposits. The urchins, in turn, ate the kelp. In the kelp forests of Alaska’s Aleutian Islands chain, urchin barrens began forming in the 1980s, causing local declines in various fishes, bald eagles, and harbor seals. *The presence of otters increases kelp forest carbon storage by 4.4 to 8.7 megatons anually. Among the many species that inhabit kelp forests are a wide variety of economically important species such as sea urchins, abalone, lobster, sea cucumbers, rockfishes and other finfishes, as well as some endangered species including abalone and southern sea otters. 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