The temple sits on a 2.9-metre-high (9.5 ft) podium on top of a vaulted terrace. It consists of a main building and two round towers within an enormous temenos or sacred area. At a height of 36 metres, it is the steepest of all ancient theatres. It consists of a broad, elongated base and a relatively small peak - the upper city. Separate from this, a new area was laid out in Roman times, consisting of a whole new city west of the Selinus river, with all necessary infrastructure, including baths, theatres, stadiums, and sanctuaries. With the expansion of the Anatolian beyliks, Pergamon was absorbed into the beylik of Karasids shortly after 1300, and then conquered by the Ottoman beylik. The inhabitants of Pergamon were supplied with water by an effective system. A permanent residence is the idea. The Acropolis of Pergamum (Pergamon) is certainly dramatic, perched atop a high, steep-sided hill to the northeast of the modern city center (). This material was dealt with in a number of tragedies, such as Aeschylus' Mysi, Sophocles' Aleadae, and Euripides' Telephus and Auge, but Pergamon does not seem to have played any role in any of them. As a result, the area has a strongly inland character. The story that parchment was invented by the Pergamenes because the Ptolemies in Alexandria had a monopoly on papyrus production is not true. The temple and the altar were built for Demeter by Philetaerus, his brother Eumenes, and their mother Boa. [19][20] In 716, Pergamon was sacked again by the armies of Maslama ibn Abd al-Malik. It was discovered in 1871 and taken to Germany, where it stands reconstructed today in the East Berlin Museum. Lysimachus, King of Thrace, took possession in 301 BC, but soon after his lieutenant Philetaerus enlarged the town, the kingdom of Thrace collapsed in 281 BC and Philetaerus became an independent ruler, and founder of the Attalid dynasty. Hadrian raised the city to the rank of metropolis in 123 and thereby elevated it above its local rivals, Ephesus and Smyrna. The surviving remains of the inscription on the architrave indicate that the building was the temple of Hera Basileia and that it was erected by Attalus II.[84]. After the Sack of Constantinople in 1204 during the Fourth Crusade, Pergamon became part of the Empire of Nicaea. On the other hand, the story was linked to the foundation of the city with another myth - that of Pergamus, the eponymous hero of the city. Omissions? The Caicus river breaks through the surrounding mountains and hills at this point and flows in a wide arc to the southwest. [15] Eumenes II and Attalus II (whose epithet was 'Philadelphos' - 'he who loves his brother') were even compared to the mythical pair of brothers, Cleobis and Biton.[16]. [64][65], In the New Testament Book of Revelation, the faith of the Pergamon believers, who "dwell where Satan’s throne is" is commended by the author. The northern stoa seems to have been the site of the Library of Pergamon. Philetairos transformed Pergamon from an archaic settlement into a fortified city. They κατοικεο/katoikeo or live or dwell in Pergamum. This terrace had no space for the circular orchestra which was normal in a Greek theatre, so only a wooden stage building was built which could be taken down when there was no performance taking place. [81] A roofed stadium, known as the Basement Stadium is located between the middle terrace and the upper terrace. The columns of the temple are unfluted and retained bossage, but it is not clear whether this was a result of carelessness or incompleteness. Since it was the most important street of the city, the quality of the material used in its construction was very high. When he died in 241, he was succeeded by his nephew Attalus I, who defeated the Galatians and assumed the royal title; the dynasty received its name from him. Pergamum was a principal city of the Roman empire in the first century. The interior walls of this colonnade had a further frieze, depicting the life of Telephus, the son of Heracles and mythical founder of Pergamon. [19] As a result of this ongoing threat, the area of settlement retracted to the citadel, which was protected by a 6-meter-thick (20 ft) wall, built of spolia. Today, only the steps around the altar’s base can be seen in the Pergamum museum in Berlin. [11], Coin of Orontes, Achaemenid Satrap of Mysia (including Pergamon), Adramyteion. At the beginning of the 19th century, Charles Robert Cockerell produced a detailed account and Otto Magnus von Stackelberg made important sketches. The Ancient Theatre Archive. Until 188 BC, it had not grown significantly since its founding by Philetaerus, and covered c. 21 hectares (52 acres). Please visit the attraction's website and/or social media before going to double-check that they are open. On its north side there was a two-story hall. The first mention of Pergamon in written records after ancient times comes from the 13th century. The modern village of Bergama, Turkey, now covers part of the ancient site. The Second World War also caused a break in work at Pergamon, which lasted until 1957. The site is occupied by the modern town of Bergama, in the il (province) of İzmir, Turkey. In the reign of Attalos I, a Temple of Zeus was built there. Its monuments included a theatre; the temple to Athena Nicephorus; and the great altar of Zeus with its richly decorated frieze, a masterpiece of Hellenistic art. Attalus I, successor and nephew of Eumenes I, was the first to achieve full independence for the territory and proclaimed himself king after his victory over the Celtic Galatiansin 228 BC. He also belonged to the broader cycle of myths related to the Trojan War as the grandson of Achilles through his father Neoptolemus and of Eetion of Thebe through his mother Andromache (concubine to Neoptolemus after the death of Hector of Troy). The members of the Pergamene aristocracy, especially Diodorus Pasparus in the 70s BC, used their own possessions to maintain good relationships with Rome, by acting as donors for the development of city. Their fortress and palace stood on the peak of the hill, while the town itself occupied the lower slopes. From the time of Philetairos, at the latest, this kind of courtyard house was common and it was ever more widespread as time went on, but not universal. The great temples and dramatic theater are visible from anywhere in the city, as they were meant to be. Numerous honorific inscriptions indicate his work and his exceptional position in Pergamon at this time.[17]. The Church of Pergamos (Pergamum) is the third of seven Churches addressed in Revelation Chapters 2 & 3. The Acropolis of Pergamum (Pergamon) is certainly dramatic, perched atop a high, steep-sided hill to the northeast of the modern city center (). In the book of Acts, Lydia was a wealthy benefactress and convert to Christianity. During the crisis of the Third Century, the economic strength of Pergamon finally collapsed, as the city was badly damaged in an earthquake in 262 and was sacked by the Goths shortly thereafter. The archaeological reports from Pergamon are published in German as Altertümer von Pergamon (de Gruyter, Berlin). [46], From the beginning of the reign of Philetairos, civic events in Pergamon were concentrated on the Acropolis. [59] Contrary to earlier attempts at an orthogonal street system, a fan-shaped design seems to have been adopted for the area around the gymnasium, with streets up to four metres wide, apparently intended to enable effective traffic flow. Roman remains include an amphitheatre, a theatre, and a racetrack. Pergamum are a metalcore band from the Central Coast. In Roman times its population was an estimated 200,000. ... (740) 274-9580 today! Here parchment was first perfected and a library of 200,000 volumes formed, which was eventually sent to Alexandria. "Die antiken Flußüberbauungen von Pergamon und Nysa (Türkei),", Boris Ilakovac, "Unbekannte Herstellungsmethode römischer Bleirohre.". The apostle John wrote a letter to the Christians who lived in Pergamum. Translation, Satan dwells in Pergamum and continues to dwell in this location moving forward. [19] In AD 663/4, Pergamon was captured by raiding Arabs for the first time. The Pergamon Altar, P. v Zaubern, Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, 1991. Since in the Roman world medicine was usually intertwined with magic and the gods, Galen, the famous 2 nd century AD physician from Pergamum, worked in conjunction with this Asklepion. [10] Only with Alexander the Great was Pergamon and the surrounding area removed from Persian control. The construction consisted in total of three levels. Others had wide columned halls in front of main rooms to the north. pur'-ga-mos, or pur'-ga-mum (he Pergamos, or to Pergamon): 1. Pergamum was the chief center of cultural and intellectual life of the "Hellenistic" world. The majority of the surviving structure derives from a reconstruction of the temple which probably took place under Caracalla, or perhaps under Hadrian.[73]. The kingdom of Pergamum yielded much wealth, especially in agricultural surpluses and silver, first to the Attalid rulers and later to Rome. [27] In a less heroic version, Grynos the son of Eurypylus named a city after him in gratitude for a favour. On the basis of a rumour that Eumenes had entered into negotiations with Perseus during the war, the Romans attempted to replace Eumenes II with the future Attalus II, but the latter refused. Coming from the Upper market, one could enter this from a tower-building at the south end. The balustrade of the upper level of the north and east stoas was decorated with reliefs depicting weapons which commemorated Eumenes II's military victory. In addition to cisterns, there was a system of nine pipes (seven Hellenistic ceramic pipes and two open Roman channels. The kings after Attalus I collected many works of art from Greece to adorn the city’s temples and courtyards, supplementing the many works of sculpture, painting, and decoration commissioned from resident artists. The city is centered around a 335-metre-high (1,099 ft) mesa of andesite which formed its acropolis. It had formal autonomy under the Attalids, who, however, interfered in most aspects of civic government. The key signs of this development are primarily the halls built under Eumenes II, whose back chambers were probably used for trade. The city had great strategic value, since it overlooked the Caicus River Valley (modern name Bakırçay) which provided access from Pergamon to the Aegean coast. Pergamon was an ancient city located in the Anatolia region, approximately 25 kilometres from the Aegean Sea in present-day Bergama, Izmir Province of Turkey. After the First World War the Bergama Museum was opened, which has received all finds discovered since then. The nearly 200 metre wide Pergamon Bridge under the forecourt of the Red Basilica in the centre of Bergama is the largest bridge substruction from antiquity.[62]. [47] To the north of this structure there was a multi-story building, which propbably had a function connected to the marketplace. Most of the finds from the Pergamon excavations before the First World War were taken to the Pergamon Museum in Berlin, with a smaller portion going to the İstanbul Archaeological Museum after it was opened in 1891. In addition, at the city limits the shrine to Asclepius (the god of healing) was expanded into a lavish spa. [8] Xenophon, who calls the city Pergamos, handed over the rest of his Greek troops (some 5,000 men according to Diodorus) to Thibron, who was planning an expedition against the Persian satraps Tissaphernes and Pharnabazus, at this location in March 399 BC. Each of these messages includes a specific word to a specific church, but there are also lessons applicable to the lives of believers today. Pergamos was situated about 100 miles north of Ephesus and boasted a population of around 250,000. Pergamum was a center for the worship of Dionysus, Zeus, and other pagan gods. The Altar which was taken away from Pergamon in 1871 and carried to Germany by the German engineer Carl Humann, is exhibited at the Museum of Pergamum in Berlin, in a manner conforming to its original. The temple itself was a Corinthian peripteros temple, about 18 metres wide with 6 columns on the short sides and 9 columns on the long sides, and two rows of columns in antis. A modern statue of Asclepius from the Asclepium in Pergamos. The city itself was declared free and was briefly the capital of the province, before it was transferred to Ephesus. Today, all that's left there is the foundation; the Altar of Zeus is more than a thousand miles away. There is a cryptic reference to satan in Revelation 2:13, which demands our attention…. The original Attalid territory around Pergamum (Mysia) was greatly expanded by 188 bce with the addition of Lydia (excluding most Greek coastal cities), part of Phrygia, Lycaonia, and Pisidia (from 183 bce), all former Seleucid territories. The Lord commended them for holding fast to the faith, even though one of their members had already been martyred, Antipas the “faithful witness.” “Witness” in Greek is martys ; it is because the early church had so many witnesses like Antipas who were “faithful unto death” (Rev. Pergamon, which traced its founding back to Telephus, the son of Heracles, is not mentioned in Greek myth or epic of the archaic or classical periods. Doubtless, such a ceremony took place in Pergamos too. It was probably the site of a settlement from a very early date. In the Roman–Seleucid War against the Seleucid king Antiochus III, Pergamon joined the Romans' coalition and was rewarded with almost all the former Seleucid domains in Asia Minor at the Peace of Apamea in 188 BC. Revelation 2:12-17 Pergamum is located north of Smyrna. It corresponds to the third of seven Kingdom of Heaven parables told by our Lord Jesus in Matthew Chapter 13 which is the Parable of the Mustard Seed. PERGAMOS; PERGAMUM. The kingdom of Pergamon was divided between Rome, Pontus, and Cappadocia, with the bulk of its territory becoming the new Roman province of Asia. The church at Pergamum and Satan have one thing in common, their home town. It is known as the Lower Gymnasium and has been identified as the boys' gymnasium. [37], In the late 18th century, these visits were reinforced by a scholarly (especially ancient historical) desire for research, epitomised by Marie-Gabriel-Florent-Auguste de Choiseul-Gouffier, a traveller in Asia Minor and French ambassador to the Sublime Porte in Istanbul from 1784 to 1791. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). The foundations are still located in the Upper city, but the remains of the Pergamon frieze, which originally decorated it, are displayed in the Pergamon museum in Berlin, where the parts of the frieze taken to Germany have been installed in a partial reconstruction. Theatre specifications and virtual reality tour of theatre, "The Seductive Elegance and Startling Cruelty of Greece's Baroque Age: Power, Pathos and Prestige in Pergamon and Other Hellenistic Kingdoms", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus,, Ancient Greek archaeological sites in Turkey, Archaeological sites in the Aegean Region, Buildings and structures in İzmir Province, Articles incorporating a citation from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference, Articles with Ancient Greek-language sources (grc), Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape. Further rooms of uncertain function were accessible from the stoas. Pergamum's history starts with a man who called Philatarius, who was friend of General Lysimachus, once established Ephesus Tours. Zu Entwicklung und Stadtstruktur von der Neugründung unter Philetairos bis in spätantike Zeit,", Klaus Grewe, Ünal Özis, et al. To the west of the acropolis, the Selinus River (modern Bergamaçay) flows through the city, while the Ketios river (modern Kestelçay) passes by to the east. An exact north-south arrangement of the city blocks was not possible because of the topographical situation and earlier construction. The city thus became the centre of a territorial realm, but Eumenes did not take the royal title. [6] Earlier habitation in the Bronze Age cannot be demonstrated, although Bronze Age stone tools are found in the surrounding area. The church at Pergamum and Satan have one thing in common, their home town. [40] However, when the archaeologist Alexander Conze took over direction of the department of ancient sculpture at the Royal Museums of Berlin, he quickly initiated a programme for the excavation and protection of the monuments connected to the sculpture, which were widely suspected to include the Great Altar.[41]. The pipe from the pool to the Acropolis consisted of only a single channel - a lead pipe pressurised to 200 mH2O. [82], The upper terrace measured 150 x 70 metres square, making it the largest of the three terraces. But East Berlin is also where Hitler's headquarters were located. This complex is identified as a palaestra and had a theatre-shaped lecture hall beyond the northern stoa, which is probably of Roman date and a large banquet hall in the centre. Pergamon lies on the north edge of the Caicus plain in the historic region of Mysia in the northwest of Turkey. It was discovered in 1871 and taken to Germany, where it stands reconstructed today in the East Berlin Museum. An ancient origin for "Pergamos" has often been assumed because of its appearing in the 17th century King James Bible (Rev 2:12). The key description is that of Thomas Smith, who visited the Levant in 1668 and transmitted a detailed description of Pergamon, which the great 17th century travellers Jacob Spon and George Wheler were able to add nothing significant to in their own accounts. It was again rebuilt and refortified after the Arabs abandoned their Siege of Constantinople in 717–718. [86] Notable extant structures in the Asclepium include: Pergamon's other notable structure is the great temple of the Egyptian gods Isis and/or Serapis, known today as the "Red Basilica" (or Kızıl Avlu in Turkish), about one kilometre (0.62 miles) south of the Acropolis at (39 7' 19" N, 27 11' 1" E). In 88 BC, Mithridates VI made the city the headquarters in his first war against Rome, in which he was defeated. It consisted of three terraces, with the main entrance at the southeast corner of the lowest terrace. [60][61] Where the lay of the land prevented the laying of a street, small alleys were installed as connections instead. [30], However, for the Attalids, it was apparently the genealogical connection to Heracles that was crucial, since all the other Hellenistic dynasties had long established such links:[31] the Ptolemies derived themselves directly from Heracles,[32] the Antigonids inserted Heracles into their family tree in the reign of Philip V at the end of the 3rd century BC at the latest,[33] and the Seleucids claimed descent from Heracles' brother Apollo. You can still see this “throne” today at the Pergamum Museum in Germany. Since the 19th century excavations, it has generally been identified with an annex of the northern stoa of the sanctuary of Athena in the Upper Citadel, which was built by Eumenes II. What's left of the city of Pergamum (also called Pergamon) is situated on a hill overlooking the modern Turkish city of Bergama. During the excavations fragments of statues of Trajan and Hadrian were found in the rubble of cella, including their portrait heads, as well as fragments of the cult statue of Zeus Philios.[78]. Today we headed to the city of Pergamum. The Library of Pergamon was renowned as second only to the Library of Alexandria. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Under Attalus I (241–197 BC), they allied with Rome against Philip V of Macedon, during the first and second Macedonian Wars. Image of Philetaerus on a coin of Eumenes I, The Kingdom of Pergamon, shown at its greatest extent in 188 BCE, Over-life-size portrait head, probably of Attalus I, from early in the reign of Eumenes II, Nevertheless, under the brothers Eumenes II and Attalus II, Pergamon reached its apex and was rebuilt on a monumental scale. [29] Even so, he provided a further, deliberately crafted link to the world of Homeric epic. A part of the altar and its surviving reliefs, restored and mounted, now stands in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin. Pergamus' role remained subordinate, although he did receive some cult worship. [57] The surface of the street consisted of andesite blocks up to 5 metres wide, 1 metre long and 30 cm deep. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936 - Page 526. About 9.5 metres in front of the east-facing building, there was an altar, which was 7 metres long and 2.3 metres wide. 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