the displacement of water voles in other circumstances would always require a site-specific licence. Within their burrows, Water Voles, are known to create escape paths in case of predator attack. Mink are one of the only predators that can follow water voles into their burrows. It inhabits the banks of rivers, ponds and canals, but in other parts of the world it is less aquatic and lives mainly on pasture land. Adults each have their own territories, which they mark with fecal latrines located either near the nest, burrow and favored water's edge platforms where voles leave or enter the water. Water vole tail is slightly longer than that of bank vole, with it being 60% head and body length compared to 50%. Unfortunately, the future of this charming riverside creature is in peril; the water vole needs urgent help to survive in the UK. Water Voles live in most European counties with the primary exceptions of Portugal and Spain. In Scotland and Wales, a site-specific licence would be required. Predators such as mink, rats or cats can predate whole colonies of water vole. Tail shorter than water vole tail, only 30% length of head & body, whilst water vole’s is 60%. The water vole is a much-loved British mammal better known as ‘Ratty’ in the children’s classic The Wind in the Willows. In addition to stoats (Debrot 1983), polecats Mustela putorius, stone martens Martes foina, red foxes Vulpes ulpes, and badgers Meles meles showed a func-tional response to water vole population changes (Mer-mod et al. of water voles in the diet of local predators during vole highs. 3) Appropriate timing for trapping and relocation operations Ideally, water voles should be trapped during early spring (between 1st March and 15th April inclusive). The European water vole, a favourite character in the children’s classic The Wind in the Willows, has lost a staggering 95% of its range since 1900. Habitat. Water voles, Britain's most rapidly declining mammals, are believed to have become extinct in Devon and Cornwall, provoking proposals for a countrywide campaign to shoot American mink, the predators They also scent-mark by using a secretion from their bodies (a flank gland). European water voles usually live in small families and are active during the day. The average life of the smaller vole species is three to six months. “The water vole is Britain’s fastest declining mammal” European Water Vole. Prolonged periods of flooding make water voles vulnerable to predators and flush them from burrows and feeding places. These voles rarely live longer than 12 months. Amazing Facts About the Water Vole (European) The shy, secretive water vole is the largest vole in the British Isles. Larger species, such as the European water vole, live longer and usually die during their second, or rarely their third, winter.As many as 88% of voles are estimated to die within the first month of life. 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2020 water vole predators